Underestimating God and Overestimating Our Own Condition

I’ve heard people describe salvation in terms of someone drowning. A person is in the middle of the ocean, struggling to stay afloat. His strength is failing. He’s gone under twice. If he goes under once more, it will be the end of him. And that’s when Jesus reaches out and calls to the drowning man, “Take my hand. Take my hand, and I will save you.” The truth of the matter is that when God saved us, he did something far greater than this. According to Eph 2, we were dead in our trespasses and sins. Not drowning. Stone cold dead. We were at the bottom of the ocean of sin, and God breathed new life into us. So let’s get the gospel right. Let’s not underestimate what God has done, and let’s not overestimate our own condition. The gospel is not about God lending a hand to someone who is struggling; it’s about God reviving a corpse.

To those who think of themselves as too “bad” to be redeemed, I say this: As long as you think of yourself as “bad,” you are still overestimating your condition. The gospel is not about making bad people good; it’s about making dead people alive. There’s nothing worse than being dead in sin, and according to the Scriptures, we were all once dead. So don’t think that you are somehow worse off than the rest of us. When we could do nothing, God did everything for us. He sent Christ, who died in our place for our sins, and who was raised on the third day, accomplishing our salvation. He sends the Holy Spirit, who unites us to Christ by faith, giving us access to what has been accomplished for us. Our salvation is all of God. Indeed, the only thing you and I contribute to our salvation is the sin that makes it necessary in the first place.

How Satan Serves God: A Look at Two Curious NT Texts

Twice in the New Testament Paul refers to delivering someone to Satan. Sound a bit harsh? In the most recent issue of the Tyndale Bulletin, I explain what I think is going on in these curious cases. You can read the full article here. I have also provided an abstract (summary) of the article below. (Warning: This is more of an academic piece.)
In 1 Corinthians 5:5, the Apostle Paul tells the Corinthian believers to hand a man living in sexual immorality over to Satan. In 1 Timothy 1:20, Paul tells Timothy that he handed Hymenaeus and Alexander over to Satan. In these passages, Paul’s language is strikingly similar to language contained in the prologue to Job. In Job 1:6-12, Satan disputes the blamelessness of Job and seeks Yahweh’s permission to test Job’s integrity. First, Yahweh allows Satan to attack Job’s most prized possessions (Job 1:12). After the first attack fails, Satan asks for Yahweh’s permission to assault Job physically. Then, in Job 2:6, the LORD says to Satan, “Behold, I deliver him to you.” In this paper, I argue that in both 1 Corinthians 5:5 and 1 Timothy 1:20 Paul draws from the prologue to Job, portraying Satan as an enemy of God who nevertheless can play the part of an ally in the process of church discipline.

Migration, Ordination, and Translation

We made it to Greeley, CO safely and with most of our sanity. Heaps of thanks to all who prayed for us as we endured what ended up being a 24-hour road trip. Highlights of the trip include the following: the Top of Texas Catholic Superstore (like a religious Walmart?), the billboard in northern Texas advertizing a “24/7 Yum Machine” (a glorified vending machine), a giant mound in New Mexico with a single porta potty at the top (when you gotta go, you gotta … climb a mountain?), and Cullen’s commentary along the way (“Dad, this is another one of those nothing towns”). Aidan and Cullen both were great in the car. This was largely due to the fact that I purchased the entire Chronicles of Narnia series on CD before we left Birmingham, AL. The boys absolutely loved listening to these. For parents taking children on a long trip, I highly recommend this set of audio books. The guy who does the voice of Aslan overdramatizes the part a bit, but all in all I would say this is one of my best purchases ever!

Tomorrow, I head to Greenwood Community Church for an examination before the Ministerial Committee. I’m presently working through the EPC ordination process. The EPC is quite thorough, and I’m very thankful for this. A rigorous ordination/installation process plays a pivotal role in protecting our churches from false teaching.

On the subject of ordination, just this morning I was reading C.S. Lewis’ Essay Collection, and I stumbled across this gem, which I find worthy of sharing. Lewis writes:

Every examination for ordinands ought to include a passage from some standard theological work for translation into the vernacular. The work is laborious but it is immediately rewarded. By trying to translate our doctrines into vulgar (meaning “common”) speech we discover how much we understand them ourselves. Our failure to translate may sometimes be due to our ignorance of the vernacular; much more often it exposes the fact that we do not exactly know what we mean.

Agreed. Following the lead of a very influential professor of mine, I refer to this as “the simplicity on the other side of complexity.” Many church leaders today are opting to cut all theological lingo out of their sermons. I think this is a mistake. We need to use words like “atonement,” “justification,” and “propitiation” in our sermons, because the Bible uses them–a lot! People need to know what these terms mean. Rather than shying away from such terms, pastors need to master the art of translation, of explaining biblical and theological words in such a way that anyone can understand them. I don’t care if someone doesn’t understand the word “atonement” when they come to our church; I do care if they don’t understand the term when they leave.

“Go West, Young Man”: We’re Off to Colorado

Pods 1Our pods just left for CO. We’re cramming the remainder of our possessions in our car and planning on leaving Birmingham, AL tomorrow morning at 3:00am (we’ll eat some barbeque in the car; happy Independence Day). We’ll drive first to Fort Worth, TX (about ten hours) and stay two nights with family there. Then we’ll leave at 3:00am on the morning of July 6th and head all the way to our new home, Greeley, CO (roughly twelve hours). So, yes, that’s twenty-two hours of driving … with a four and a six year old … and our four year old has just come down with a 103 fever! Poor little guy has awful luck when it comes to moving. When we moved to New Zealand three and a half years ago, he got Chickenpox on the plane.

As we get ready to go West, we ask our family and friends to pray for the following:

  • Quick healing for our youngest son, Cullen.
  • Safety as we travel unfamiliar roads at ridiculous hours of the morning.
  • Patience and gentleness for Dillon and Jamie. These will be greatly needed, as we will probably be listening to our boys sing the “Pink Elephants on Parade” song from Dumbo about 12,000 times.
  • A boundless supply of Benadryl, so Aidan and Cullen will sleep most of the way. (Alright, alright, I’m just kidding about this one. Maybe.)
  • Our first few weeks in Greeley, as we will have a lot to do: preaching, meetings, getting to know many new people, unpacking a few things, continuing the process of getting a house, investigating schools for Aidan, learning our way around the city, etc.

If you haven’t heard, the church I will be shepherding is Cornerstone Community Church (EPC). You can visit the church website here. And you can find sermon audio here. I’ll be preaching on July 12th, and, assuming the congregational meeting that day goes well, will be preaching weekly beginning August 2nd. Jamie, Aidan, Cullen, and I are excited to play a small part in the great things that God is doing in Greeley. Cornerstone family, we’ll see you soon!

Tullian Tchividjian Resigns after Admitting an Affair

Terribly saddened on this Monday morning after Father’s Day. Our brothers and sisters at Coral Ridge Presbyterian, and certainly the Tchividjian family, need our prayers. Tullian released the following statement to The Washington Post:

I resigned from my position at Coral Ridge Presbyterian Church today due to ongoing marital issues. As many of you know, I returned from a trip a few months back and discovered that my wife was having an affair. Heartbroken and devastated, I informed our church leadership and requested a sabbatical to focus exclusively on my marriage and family. As her affair continued, we separated. Sadly and embarrassingly, I subsequently sought comfort in a friend and developed an inappropriate relationship myself. Last week I was approached by our church leaders and they asked me about my own affair. I admitted to it and it was decided that the best course of action would be for me to resign. Both my wife and I are heartbroken over our actions and we ask you to pray for us and our family that God would give us the grace we need to weather this heart wrenching storm. We are amazingly grateful for the team of men and women who are committed to walking this difficult path with us. Please pray for the healing of deep wounds and we kindly ask that you respect our privacy.

See the full Washington Post article here.

How Jim Gaffigan’s Faith Informs His Comedy

Check out First Things for an interesting interview with Jim and Jeannie Gaffigan. The interview focuses on the role faith plays in the Gaffigan household. The interviewer concludes:

[The Gaffigans] provide an excellent example of taking faith seriously in a culture that is often faith-phobic, while at the same time making it appealing for millions of people who think religion can’t mix with a joyful life.

Personally, I’m a huge Jim Gaffigan fan. His standup routines are hilarious. Hot Pocket. Need I say more?

The Center for Pastor Theologians’ First Annual Theology Conference

Perhaps you know the name Kevin Vanhoozer. If not, you should. If I was going to be marooned on an island and could grab only a handful of books before my departure, I would make sure I got at least something off the Vanhoozer shelf. But then again how often does one get to plan for a marooning? Anyway, the point is this: Vanhoozer is as solid as they come. He models for his students the three CSs: 1) canon sense, 2) catholic sensibility, and 3) contextual sensitivity. If you’re looking for a short, helpful introduction to Vanhoozer, I encourage you to check out the most recent issue of Christianity Today.

I’m very excited to announce that Vanhoozer will be a plenary speaker at The Center for Pastor Theologians’ First Annual Theology Conference. CPT has just released the first of six video interviews with Vanhoozer. I’ve included the first one below. If you are a pastor, seminary student, professor who cares about the church, para-church minister, or lay church leader, this would be an outstanding conference for you to attend! Details of the conference can be found here.

A Future World “More Like the Real Thing”

In my early years, I did not “look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come.” My acquaintance with the Creeds came late in life. This unfortunate omission was one of many factors in the development of my escapist attitude toward what I thought was an evil earth. Lyrics also shaped my thinking. I grew up singing the old song that says, “This world is not my home, I’m just passing through.” Every Christmas I sang the well-known words of “Away in a Manger”: “and fit us for heaven, to live with thee there.” If heaven is of first importance, why should I care about this third rock from the sun? Another factor in the development of my “escapatology” was the jargon of my childhood denomination. Though I am very grateful for the emphasis we placed on evangelism, I suspect the stress on “soul-winning” contributed to my vision of cosmic evacuation, Christians floating off to heaven as unadorned spirits. Long this idea lingered. Charles Spurgeon once said that he kept his old sermons so he would have something to weep over. Regrettably, I can say the same. Scanning some of my first sermons, preached in my teenage years, I found the following dualistic rejection of physicality: “You do not have a soul. None of you do. You do not have a soul. You are a soul, and you just happen to have a body!” Father, forgive such a broken testimony to our cosmic Redeemer.

Instead of the physical, I valued the spiritual; instead of down here, I wanted up there. This sort of cosmological dualism is common in our churches. N.T. Wright and a handful of others have argued this point at length. Richard Bauckham, in his book, The Bible and Ecology, captures the problem: “So often, in the Christian tradition, we have thought of the non-human creation merely as a stage on which the drama of the history of God and humans is being played out—and a temporary stage, at that, due to be dismantled and removed when the story reaches its final climax. Even worse, so often, in the Christian tradition, we have thought of human embeddedness in nature as a fate from which humans need to be liberated” (145). The widespread confusion over the ultimate hope is, well, confusing, especially since the NT is crystal clear on the matter: God’s people are promised a new type of bodily existence in a physical place. As C.S. Lewis puts it, we will come back to earth, not as floating wraiths, but as solid people who eat fish, cast shadows in the sunlight, and make a noise when we tramp the floor (Miracles). Indeed, we should follow Lewis’ lead in The Great Divorce, imagining bodies that are more solid than our present ones.

Just yesterday I finished reading The Last Battle with my boys, so I’ll leave you with this thought from Lewis. At the end of the book, when the characters inhabit the new Narnia, Lewis offers a number of descriptions of this new creation, descriptions that focus specifically on how it is both different from and similar to the old Narnia. Here’s one of my favorite lines:

The new one was a deeper country: every rock and flower and blade of grass looked as if it meant more … It was the Unicorn who summed up what everyone was feeling. He stamped his right forehoof on the ground and neighed, and then cried: ‘I have come home at last! This is my real country! I belong here. This is the land I have been looking for all my life, though I never knew it till now. The reason why we loved the old Narnia is that it sometimes looked a little like this’ (196).

Compared to the old Narnia, the new Narnia is “more like the real thing.” Spot on, Jack. Spot on.

Helps for Search Committees and Pastoral Candidates

Praying for DaddyA former professor of mine is fond of saying that most church committees consist of “the unwilling doing the unnecessary for the uninterested.” Thankfully, my most recent experience with a committee was nothing like this.

In this post, I have an exciting announcement to make and a few words of advice to offer.

First, the announcement. As many of my readers will know, at the end of 2014 my family and I returned to the States from New Zealand, where we had been studying and serving the Lord since the start of 2012. We returned to the States confident that, in his perfect timing, God would let us know where he wanted us to serve him next. Over the past several months, I have talked to around forty churches and Christian colleges/seminaries and done (as far as I can tally) close to fifty interviews. It has been quite the process! But I am pleased to say that the Lord has now made it clear where he wants us. The search committee of Cornerstone Community Church (EPC) has unanimously nominated me to be their next Senior Pastor, and I have accepted the nomination. In the days ahead, my family and I will be traveling back to Greeley, CO. I will preach for the second time in Greeley on July 12th, and a congregational meeting will be held that day to affirm the call. We are excited to get to know our new faith family and grateful for this opportunity to play a small part in the great things God is doing at Cornerstone. Soli Deo gloria!

Second, the advice. I realize that many churches and numerous candidates out there presently find themselves in the stage of waiting and discerning that I myself have just gone through. I hope here to provide some helpful information gleaned from my experience.

Let’s start with what I think is the best process for a search team. The obvious initial step is to collect resumes. But after this first step, I came across a variety of approaches. Some committees called me and set up an in-person interview without taking the time to learn much about my theology and ministry philosophy. On one occasion my wife and I went to dinner with a search team and they almost immediately brought up a very specific eschatological view (dispensational premillennialism, for those who are into these things). Jamie gave me “the look” and I ordered something stronger to drink. It was clear that this wasn’t going to be a good fit. Another church received my resume, made no contact with me for four months, then, entirely out of the blue, called to set up an in-person visit. At the other end of the spectrum was the church that had me complete four questionnaires and do three telephone interviews (of nearly two hours each!) before the in-person interview. This, it seems to me, is a bit too much. You can only tell so much about a person on paper or over the phone.

In my judgment, the best process is the one Cornerstone used with me. There are essentially four steps. 1) Collect resumes. 2) Have candidates respond to a set of key questions in writing. 3) Conduct two phone interviews. The first one is for the search team to get to know the candidate. The second one is for the candidate to get to know the church and the community. 4) Bring the candidate (and spouse) to the church for the in-person interview and for an opportunity to preach at a neutral site. Of course, throughout the entire process, the search team is praying. This was abundantly clear to me as I interacted with the Cornerstone committee. Additionally, other matters will need to be worked into the four-step process outlined above, matters such as reviewing sermon samples, contacting references, and doing a background check.

Two further features of the Cornerstone committee struck me. One was that it was a diverse group. Men and women. Younger and older. Variety of backgrounds and professions. This, I think, is an excellent idea. The other was their willingness to bring both me and my wife to Greeley, Co (from Birmingham, AL) for the in-person interview. I did quite a few in-persons; most of the churches did not invite the spouse. In my mind, it is very important for both the husband and wife to go to the interview, and I would say that this is important from both perspectives. The search committee needs to get to know the husband and the wife. As we say in our house, “Ministry is a family affair.” Also, my wife frequently discerns things that I don’t, so having her with me is a tremendous help in trying to figure out if we are going to be the right fit for a particular church and area.

Moving along to the pastoral candidate’s part, let me first offer three words of encouragement. God is sovereign. God is good. When God bids us wait, he bids us wait for something. Basic truths, I know. But the search process sometimes has a way of eroding our theological foundation. Don’t let it. Keep these truths in mind.

As for the more practical stuff, the most important thing I can say is this: be yourself. You don’t want to go through the interview process as a pretender, get the call from a church, and then realize, “Oh great, now I have to be that guy.” It’s no fun being a schizophrenic shepherd. The God who called you and gifted you has a place where you can enjoy doing ministry the way you have been wired to do it.

Finally, the most frightening part of the process for some people is the questions. “What are they going to ask me?” “Will they want me to recite the Westminster Confession?” “What if they ask me about the seventy weeks of Daniel?” Being the overly organized, Type-A guy that I am, I kept every questionnaire I completed over the last six months or so. Below you will find a list of fifteen questions I was asked at least twice (and in some cases numerous times). We’re always thrown a curveball or two (I’ve also given you one of my curveballs below), but this list should help you get started in your thinking and preparation. May God lead you, as he has me, to that portion of his flock he wants you to shepherd.

1. What is the gospel?

2. Summarize your understanding of the Christian faith.

3. What are your strengths and weakness, and how do you compensate for your weaknesses?

4. What are your spiritual gifts?

5. What is your leadership style?

6. What is your philosophy of ministry?

7. How do you prepare for a Sunday sermon?

8. Tell us about your devotional habits.

9. How do you spot spiritual maturity in someone?

10. How do you define a healthy church?

11. What is your perspective on worship style, and what role have you personally taken in planning worship services?

12. Who are the historic or current Christians you return to again and again for instruction and inspiration?

13. Have you previously trained others in personal evangelism? If so, how?

14. What experience do you have in developing leaders in ministry?

15. How is the gospel transforming your life right now?

The Curve: Tell us about a time in your ministry when you just totally blew it.

PS – The picture at the top of this post is of my two boys, Aidan and Cullen, praying for me from Birmingham as I preached last weekend in Greeley. Like I said, ministry is a family affair.

Resources for Aspiring Authors

Fairly often I am asked about writing for publication.

“How do I become a better writer?”

“How do I decide which periodical to submit my article to?”

“How do I approach an editor?”

“What should a book proposal include?”

I myself am very new to writing and publishing, so I have no idea why these questions come my way. Nevertheless, I will hazard a few words of advice for would-be writers.

First, take one (or more than one) of Denise George’s Book Writing Boot Camps. I first met Denise at Beeson Divinity School, where she teaches a class called The Writing Minister. The class was excellent; Denise is an aficionado of the writing craft. If you have questions, Denise will have the answers.

Second, read great writers. Start with someone like C.S. Lewis. Read his complete corpus. Watch what he does. Appreciate his every move. Learn the value of a good metaphor. If you want to become a better writer, become a better reader.

Third, keep a commonplace book. Write down every new word you learn. Every phrase you find that makes you smile and say, “Now that’s a great line.” Every quote worth remembering. Then tweak this stuff and work it into your own writing. “Borrow from the best,” I always say.

Fourth, read books on writing and publishing. I know, this is not exactly an action-packed genre. No serial killers. Only discussion about the serial comma. Very few damsels in distress. Lots of warnings about dangling modifiers. But hey, we do need to know the nuts and bolts. Here is a list of seven helpful works to get you started.

Strunk and White, The Elements of Style

Zinsser, On Writing Well

Clark, The Glamour of Grammar

Clark, Writing Tools

Wilson, Wordsmithy

Porter, Inking the Deal

Rabiner and Fortunato, Thinking Like Your Editor

Work, Wealth, and Economics

The new Bulletin of Ecclesial Theology is out. BET 2.1 focuses on work, wealth, and economics.

From the opening chapters of Genesis, the issues of work, economics, and vocation are of clear practical importance to what it means to be a godly human being, loving and serving God in the world he has created. This issue of the Bulletin of Ecclesial Theology tackles these topics from a variety of perspectives, but always oriented to the preaching of God’s Word, and the life and faith of God’s people.

Essays and book reviews in BET 2.1 include:

“Work as the Divine Curse: Toil and Grace East of Eden” — Scott Hafemann

“In Defense of Having Stuff: Bonhoeffer, Anthropology and the Goodness of Human Materiality” — Joel Lawrence

“Theology and Economics in the Biblical Year of Jubilee” — Michael LeFebvre

“A Christian Antidote to ‘Affluenza': Contentment in Christ” — Gary L. Shultz Jr.

“Seeking a Free Church Theology of Economics: An Exercise in Avoiding Oxymorons” — Matthew Ward

Steve Corbertt and Brian Fickert. When Helping Hurts: How to Alleviate Poverty without Hurting the Poor, Gary L. Shultz Jr.

Jennifer Roback Morse. Love and Economics: It Takes a Family to Raise a Village, Christopher Bechtel

Jeff Van Duzer. Why Business Matters to God: And What Still Needs to be Fixed, Jay Thomas

Wayne Grudem. Business for the Glory of God: The Bible’s Teaching on the Moral Goodness of Business, J. Ryan Davidson

Timothy Keller. Every Good Endeavor: Connecting your Work to God’s Work, Jason A. Nicolls

Gary A. Haugen and Victor Boutros. The Locust Effect: Why the End of Poverty Requires the End of Violence, Gregory Thompson

Adam Smith. The Wealth of Nations, and Karl Marx. Capital: Volume I, Greg Forster

PS – I’m presently working on an article that will appear in BET in the near future. In the article, I am arguing that 1 Tim 4:1-5 constitutes a theological antidote to the “escapatology” (i.e., an eschatology of “let’s get the heck out of here”) that is prevalent in our churches today. Stay tuned for more details!

The Good (News for the Church), the Bad (News for America), and the Ugly (Subject of Alcohol): Some Weekend Reading

I’m off to Illinois for several days and plan to do a good bit of reading on the plane. If you too are looking for something to read over the weekend, here are a few suggestions.

On Tuesday of this week, the Pew Research Center published findings from one of their latest surveys. The title of the study is “America’s Changing Religious Landscape.” Here’s the first paragraph:

The Christian share of the U.S. population is declining, while the number of U.S. adults who do not identify with any organized religion is growing, according to an extensive new survey by the Pew Research Center. Moreover, these changes are taking place across the religious landscape, affecting all regions of the country and many demographic groups. While the drop in Christian affiliation is particularly pronounced among young adults, it is occurring among Americans of all ages. The same trends are seen among whites, blacks and Latinos; among both college graduates and adults with only a high school education; and among women as well as men.

Many Christians have been discouraged by these findings. If that’s you, then I encourage you to read the response written by Russell Moore, titled “Is Christianity Dying?” Moore rightly holds out hope:

The future of Christianity is bright. I don’t know that from surveys and polls, but from a word Someone spoke one day back at Caesarea Philippi. The gates of hell haven’t gotten any stronger, and the Light that drives out the darkness is enough to counter every rival gospel, even those gospels that describe themselves as “none.”

This calls for celebration! So, as you think about how best to celebrate, have a look at Preston Sprinkle’s article written last September for Relevant, titled “What Does the Bible Really Say about Alcohol?” Preston is a fellow member of the Center for Pastor Theologians, and his article is one of the best popular treatments of the alcohol question I have stumbled (you see what I just did there?) across. Also, I can certainly relate to his opening anecdote. While working on my PhD in New Zealand, our postgraduate theology seminars regularly were held in a pub!

Why Christians Should Get Vaccines

Those interested in learning more about the vaccination debate would do well to consult the May issue of Christianity Today.

Matthew Loftus, a family doctor based in Baltimore, has written a very good piece that encourages parents, and especially Christian parents, to vaccinate their children. Loftus argues that we should not let the rare story of a vaccine gone bad divert our attention away from the larger body of evidence. He writes, “The scientific evidence overwhelmingly suggests that vaccines carry a high chance of benefiting us and an incredibly low chance of harming us.”

Loftus also does an excellent job of explaining that vaccines still represent a crucial weapon against diseases that would otherwise kill, and that when parents opt out of vaccination because of concerns about their own children, they are whittling away at the herd immunity that protects the most vulnerable individuals (such as those who suffer from poverty and do not have the same power to protect themselves and their children). The measles, for example, which kills 146,000 people each year, is incredibly contagious. If 100 people are in a room, and 1 has the measles, 90 of those exposed–if not already vaccinated–will be infected. Bottom line: The decision to opt out of vaccination affects many, many others, not just our own children.

Again, the full article, written by Matthew Loftus, can be found in the May issue of CT.

The Community of Creation or What the Creatures Can Teach us About Worship

Lately I’ve been doing some reading in preparation for a paper I will be giving at the Center for Pastor Theologians Symposium in the Chicago area in early August. In my paper, I’ll be exploring the unique contribution of 1 Tim 4:1-5 to our theology of creation.

One of the books I’ve just finished reading is Richard Bauckham’s The Bible and Ecology: Rediscovering the Community of Creation. For me, this was a paradigm-shifting work. That humans are God’s beloved creatures, called to steward or manage the rest of creation, tends to be the default view of most Christians. Bauckham’s aim is to set the notion of “stewardship” within the wider biblical vision of “the community of creation,” a phrase which stresses “our commonality with other creatures, our dependence on them as well as our significance for them, in a life in which all creatures exist for the glory of God” (preface, emphasis added). For Bauckham, our creation in the image of God and the unique dominion given to us does not abolish our fundamental community with other creatures. What is needed among humanity is “cosmic humility”; we need to recognize the fact that we are creatures within creation, not gods over creation.

One of the most illuminating parts of Bauckham’s argument is his emphasis on the cosmic choir of praise. He contends, “[T]he most profound and life-changing way in which we can recover our place in the world as creatures alongside our fellow-creatures is through the biblical theme of the worship all creation offers to God” (p. 76). Non-human creatures bring glory to God simply by being themselves and fulfilling their God-given roles in creation. Brilliantly, Bauckham points out, “It is distinctively human to bring praise to conscious expression in voice, but the creatures remind us that this distinctively human form of praise is worthless unless, like them, we live our whole lives to the glory of God” (p. 79).

Bauckham also does a fantastic job of reminding us that the future hope of believers is an “ecotopia,” a new creation in which animals and humans relate to one another in peaceable ways (e.g., Isa 11:6-9). The Bible’s grand narrative runs from creation to new creation. God is not only interested in redeeming humans but in renewing all of creation. In Bauckham’s words, when we read the Bible, we are reading “a christological eco-narrative” (p. 151). The Christ who created all things and who holds all things together is the Christ who can and does reconcile all things. In other words, Jesus’ full significance is found in his relationship, not just to humans, but to all of his creation.

A Piece of the Puzzle?: An Update on the Cause of Cullen’s Stroke

Here is a brief medical update for those who have so faithfully prayed for our family over the last six or seven weeks.

Since March 2nd, the doctors have been hard at work trying to determine the cause of Cullen’s stroke. This means lots of needles, blood, and tests, which is very scary for a kid who just turned four. But Cullen has been exceptionally brave for such a little guy, just like Reepicheep, his favorite character from Narnia.

Yesterday, the nurse at our pediatrician’s office called us with some test results. The main discovery is that Cullen is anemic. I am hopeful that this might be the missing piece of the puzzle for which we have been searching. Last night and early this morning, I read a few medical journals, and there is some evidence in the medical community to suggest a link between iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) and ischemic strokes, the type of stroke Cullen had. A 2007 study, published in Pediatrics, argues, “Children with iron-deficiency anemia accounted for more than half of all stroke cases in children without an underlying medical illness, which suggests that iron-deficiency anemia is a significant risk factor for stroke in otherwise healthy young children.” A 2011 study in Archives of Disease in Childhood further explores the association between IDA and ischemic strokes in children. I plan to discuss all of this with our neurologist ​when we meet with him on May 8th. He will know if the theory holds water.

The potential good news is that, if the neurologist thinks that IDA could have caused Cullen’s stroke, then it might be the case that we can greatly decrease the chance of future strokes simply by keeping Cullen on iron supplements. Here’s hoping (and praying).